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Properties of Stones

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Gemstones have been fascinating objects since they've first been pulled from the earth.  Many ancient cultures including ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans have  all long believed in the mystical and metaphysical properties semi precious gemstones. Many have been used as protective talismans for the young and weak, and as lucky charms to help with love; other stones provide greater insight into ourselves.  Here is a general resource that is full of fascinating information on a stone's origins, chemical make up, healing and metaphysical properties.  

 

Amazonite          Amber          Amethyst          Ammonite          Angelite          Apatite          Aquamarine          Aventurine          Azurite          Botsuwana_Agate         Calcite         Coral          Carnelian         Chalcedony          Chrysocolla         Chrysoprase         Crystal Quartz          Emerald         Florite          Garnet          Hematine     

 
Amazonite

Mohs Hardness scale: 6-6.5 

Amazonite is a green variety of microcline feldspar. The name is taken from that of the Amazon River, from which certain green stones were formerly obtained. For many years, the source of amazonite's color was a mystery. Naturally, many people assumed the color was due to copper because copper compounds often have blue and green colors. More recent studies suggest that the blue-green color results from small quantities of lead and water in the feldspar.

Sources: Amazonite is found worldwide, but large deposits exist in Russia, Myanmar, India, Ethiopia, Madagascar, Brazil and the United States (Colorado and Virginia)

Amazonite as Power Stone: Like waters deep and ancient, Amazonite beckons in captivating shades of turquoise-green, promising to soothe the spirit and calm the soul. Its energy is as powerful as the river for which it is named, and as bold as the legendary women warriors with whom it is connected, yet it tempers aggression, tames the irrational, and stills the disquiet. It provides harmony and balance.

Amazonite is a strong gemstone for communication and is particularly helpful if you sometimes find it difficult to tell the truth. Amazonite assists in communicating one’s true thoughts and feelings without over-emotionalism. It also enables one to see a problem from another’s point of view in order to affect peace, or to see both sides of an issue objectively to resolve one’s own inner conflicts. Sleeping with an Amazonite can bring these components into focus through the symbolism of dreams.

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Amber

Moh's Hardness scale: 2-2.5

Amber is not a stone, but fossilized tree resin.  There are five classes of amber, defined on the basis of their chemical constituents. Because it originates as a soft, sticky tree resin, amber sometimes contains animal and plant material as inclusions.  Amber is globally distributed, mainly in rocks from the Cretaceous age or younger.  Pieces of amber torn from the seafloor are cast up by the waves, and collected by hand, dredging, or diving.

Sources: The Baltic area, the North Sea, Romania, Italy, Myanmar, and the Dominican Republic.

Amber as a Power Stone: Amber has a long history of being a powerful healing and cleansing stone.  Amber absorbs negative energies and transmutes them into positive forces that stimulate the body to heal itself.  Mentally, Amber stimulates the intellect, clears depression and promotes a positive mental state and creative self expression.  It brings balance, patience and encourages decision-making.  It is also a useful memory aid.  Its flexibility dissolves opposition.  Emotionally, Amber encourages peacefulness and develops trust.  Spiritually, Amber promotes altruism and brings wisdom.

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Amethyst

Mohs Hardness scale: 7

Amethyst is the purple variety of quartz and the most valued member of the quartz family. It must be purple to be amethyst, but it can display a range of shades including deep purple, light lilac, lavender and mauve. Top quality amethyst is a deep medium purple with rose-colored flashes. Its purple color made it a stone of royalty for many thousands of years.  Amethyst can occur as crystals that are six sided on either end. It also forms as druzy which are crystalline crusts covering the host rock. It is found inside geodes and in alluvial deposits all around the world and occurs in both crystalline or massive forms. When manganese is present in clear quartz amethyst is produced, while the amount of iron contained in the specimen accounts for the depth of purple.

Sources: Brazil, Uruguay, Sri Lanka, Siberia, North African, and Russia

Amethyst as a Power Stone: Amethyst healing properties have been known since the ancient Greeks used the stones to make amethyst goblets to ward off drunkenness. Amethysts are positive energy stones that work on spirituality, your physical being and can help with emotional issues.  Amethyst is also known as the couple's stone, and it is no coincidence that it is February's birthstone.  It is the stone of St. Valentine and of faithful lovers because St. Valentine was thought to have worn an Amethyst ring engraved with the image of Cupid. It is also referred to as the “couple’s stone” because it gives meaning to relationships that, over time, transcends the carnal union and gives way to a deeper connection and a more soulful communion.

  
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Ammonite

Mohs Hardness scale: 4.5-5

Ammonites were free-swimming molluscs of the ancient oceans, living around the same time that the dinosaurs walked the Earth and disappearing during the same extinction event. They came in a range of sizes, from tiny species only a couple of centimetres across, to large ones reaching over two metres in diameter. The animal would have lived in the last and largest of a chain of spiralled chambers. Ammonite generally refers to the fossilized shell of these ctreatures, these shells are made up of aragonite. While aragonite is the main component of ammonite, other minerals can be found in it as well. Mainly pyrite, calcite and silica, though other trace elements are quite common.

Sources: Ammonite fossils are found on every continent.

Ammonite as Power Stone: Ammonites are a stone of protection.  It provides for insight and it helps to assist one in seeing the ‘whole picture.’ It gives stability to it's user.   In healing, ammonite will assist with general good health, stamina and high energy. It can help transmute negativity to smoothly flowing energy.  Ammonite encourages growth and change.  Ammonites encourage us to leave the past behind and continue to progress towards new phases of our life.

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Angelite

Mohs Hardness scale: 3.5

Angelite or Blue Anhydrite is a fairly new discovery in the gem and mineral world.  Angelite was discovered in 1987 in Peru, during the Harmonic Conversion, it's colors may be white, gray or colorless, as well as blue to violet. Angelite is formed from celestite that has been compressed for many millions of years.  Fine specimens of Anhydrite have been found in Mexico and Peru that show good crystal habit, a nice blue color and even a play of light internally in the crystal.  Lilac blue Anhydrite is commonly referred to as Angelite, for it's "Angelic" color.  Rare specimens of Angelite become flourescent under UV light also addly to its heavenly beauty.

Sources: Mexico, Peru, Germany and New Mexico

Angelite as Power Stone: Angelite is a beautiful and calming stone, connecting you to the Angels, Spiritual Guides and the spiritual realm.  You will also be able to easily connect with your higher self in this way.  Angelite brings inner peace, tranquility, calm and focus to the highest realms of heavenly light.  It is one stone that truly holds the energy of the force we know as Karuna: compassion, pity and tenderness.  It also implies devoted action to alleviate suffering.  Angelite can helps to rejuvenate and regenerate ill and depleted areas. It is very useful in any wasting type sickness.

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Apatite

Mohs Hardness Scale: 5

Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals.  Oddly enough, the primary use of apatite is in the manufacturing of fertilizer – it is a source of phosphorus.  Apatite is the most common phosphate mineral, and is the main source of the phosphorus required by plants. The bones and teeth of most animals, including humans, are composed of calcium phosphate, which is the same material as Apatite.  While tooth enamel is the hardest material in the human body, apatite is not especially hard when compared to other gemstones, with a rating of only 5 on the Mohs scale. So apatite jewelry is usually confined to earrings and pendants or occasional-wear rings with protective settings. Apatite is also sensitive to heat and acid, so should not be worn when working with chemicals.  While apatite is a common mineral, gem-quality apatite is quite rare. Apatite is known by gemstone connoisseurs especially for two colors; the Paraiba-like blue-green, and the leek-green color that once earned apatite the name 'asparagus stone.' There is also a very rare deep purple apatite, found in the aptly named Mount Apatite in Maine, USA.

Sources: United States, Brazil, Burma and Madagascar.

Apatite as a Powerstone: Apatite is said to enhance communication and self-expression and can be a useful stone to keep near you during public speaking. It can further help, public speaking, by calming the nerves and giving you the self-confidence to stand up there and talk. In healing Apatite is believed to suppress the appetite and to raise the metabolic rate so may be useful for those wishing to lose weight.  



 
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Aquamarine

Mohs Hardness Scale: 7.5-8

Aquamarine (from Latin: aqua marina, "water of the sea") is a blue or cyan variety of beryl.  Aquamarine is a member of the beryl family and ranges in color from an almost colorless pale blue to blue-green or teal. The most prized color is a deep-blue aqua color.  Aquamarine is one of the official birthstones for those born in March. Aquamarine is exceptionally hard and has an outstanding vitreous (glass-like) luster. Like seawater, aquamarine can be light-blue, dark-blue, blue-green and green-blue. The more saturated the color, the higher the value, although almost all aquamarine is typically a lighter blue tone. A deeply saturated blue is the most desirable color, but it is very rare in larger specimens. The intensity of color is one of the most important criteria when evaluating colored gemstones, but unlike other gems, aquamarine is not diminished by lesser color intensity; many people actually prefer the more crystal-clear lighter gemstones over the richer, deeper colors.

Sources: Australia, Myanmar (Burma), China, India, Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Zambia and Zimbabwe, as well as in several U.S. locations.

Aquamarine as a Powerstone: Aquamarine's light blue arouses feelings of sympathy, trust, harmony and friendship. Good feelings. Feelings which are based on mutuality and which prove their worth in lasting relationships. The blue of aquamarine is a divine, eternal colour, because it is the colour of the sky. However, aquamarine blue is also the colour of water with its life-giving force. And aquamarine really does seem to have captured the lucid blue of the oceans. No wonder, when you consider that according to the myths that it originated in the treasure chest of fabulous mermaids, and has, since ancient times, been regarded as the sailors' lucky stone. Its name is derived from the Latin 'aqua' (water) and 'mare' (sea). It is said that its strengths are developed to their best advantage when it is placed in water which is bathed in sunlight. However, it is surely better still to wear aquamarine, since according to the old traditions this promises a happy marriage and is said to bring the woman who wears it joy and wealth into the bargain. Aquamarine is also a stone of love and fidelity.  It is believed to reawaken love and passion in long and tired relationships.An ideal gem, not only for loving and married couples.

 

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Aventurine

Mohs Hardness Scale: 6.5

Aventurine is a form of quartz, characterised by its translucency and the presence of platy mineral inclusions that give a shimmering or glistening effect termed aventurescence.Aventurine is a translucent to opaque variety of microcrystalline quartz. It contains small inclusions of shiny minerals which give the stone a sparkling effect known as aventurescence. Inclusions of mica will give a silverish sheen, while inclusions of hematite give a reddish or grayish sparkle.  Aventurine ranges in color from green, peach, brown, blue and a creamy green. Besides its uses in jewelry, aventurine is also used for ornamental purposes like vases, bowls, and figurines.

Sources: Brazil, India, Austria, Russia, and Tanzania.

Aventurine as a PowerStone: Aventurine is known as the “Stone of Opportunity,” thought to be the luckiest of all crystals, especially in manifesting prosperity and wealth, or for increasing favor in competitions or games of chance. Its winning energy makes it a great ally for boosting one’s chances in any situation - a first date, tax audit, even landing a promotion. One needs only to be near it to derive its benefits. Aventurine is ideal for soothing hot tempers or bad moods, and can greatly diminish the effects of domestic strife between spouses. Many believe that aventurine has the capacity to calm a troubled spirit and bring about inner peace.

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Azurite

Mohs Hardness scale:3.5 - 4

Azurite is a soft, deep blue copper mineral produced by weathering of copper ore deposits.  Azurite is one of the two basic copper(II) carbonate minerals, the other being bright green malachite.   Azurite owes its name to its beautiful azure-blue color, which makes it a very popular and well-known mineral. It usually occurs with green Malachite, which may form green stains or specks on Azurite crystals.   Azurite was used as a blue pigment for centuries.  Depending on the degree of fineness to which it was ground, it gave a wide range of blues.

Sources: Australia, Chile, Russia, Africa, China.

Azurite as a Powerstone: Azurite tempers the mind; it releases stress and confusion, and alleviates worry, indecision, and thoughts that linger in the back of the consciousness.   Azurite enhances focus and concentration, memorization and retention of information. Azurite was sacred to the Egyptians who believed it was an aid to spiritual communication. Many believe that this stone helps to reduce anger and to increase psychic awareness.

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Agate

Mohs Hardness Scale: 7-9

Agate is a variety of chalcedony formed from layers of quartz which usually show varicolored bands. It usually occurs as rounded nodules or veins.  Although agates may be found in various kinds of rock, they are classically associated with volcanic rocks.  Often tiny quartz crystals form within the stone and add to the beauty and uniqueness of individual stones. These crystals are called  druzy. Lapidaries often cut just the drusy from an agate and jewelers use these drusy cabochons as the main stone or as an accent stone in their jewelry designs.  Agate is a relatively inexpensive stone except for some varieties with unusual banded or scenic markings.

Sources: Africa, Asia, Brazil, Egypt, Germany, India, Italy, Mexico, Nepal, and the USA.

Agate as a Pwerstone: Agate is believed to discern truth, accept circumstances, and is a powerful emotional healer. Legend says that Agate improves memory and concentration, increases stamina and encourages honesty.  It is believed to prevent insomnia and insure pleasant dreams, to enhance personal courage and protect one against danger. Agate provides a calming influence, improves perception, concentration and helps to develop and increase one's analytical talents.

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Botswanna Agate

Mohs Hardness scale: 7

Agate from the African country of Botswana banded with fine parallel lines of white, purple, or peach.  Botswana Agates tend to be considered a favorite of the general rock collectors because of their sharp constrasting white, gray and black bands as well as their shadowing effects. White, black and gray are typcial colors, and some agates have been found with colors of lavendar, purple, orange,  red and yellow with latter colors being most rare. There are some pink to white agates found in  the same area as result of weathering ("bleaching"). It is common to see them in small sizes (an once to half-pound), but some larger do show up from time to time but they tend to be more fractured.

Sources: Botswana, Africa

Botswana Agate as a Powerstone: Botswana agate is sometimes called the "change stone" because of its property of helping one handle change in a positive way. It gently helps one make transitions of any kind in a way that change is not as difficult or painful as could be without it; it is a comforting stone. Botswana agate is helpful in overcoming addictions and other self-destructive compulsive behavior patterns, as well as dealing with repressed emotional issues. As a success stone, it helps one achieve and cope with success. It is also a stone of sensuality. It is beneficial to the nervous system and can help rid the body of toxins, as well as help in the healing of broken bones.

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Calcite

Mohs Hardness Scale: 3

Calcite is a rock-forming mineral with a chemical formula of CaCO3. It is extremely common and found throughout the world in sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous rocks. Some geologists consider it to be a "ubiquitous mineral" - one that is found everywhere.  It occurs in a seemingly unlimited variety of shapes and colors. It constitutes a major portion of many of the earth's rocks. Some interesting facts about calcite are high-grade optical calcite was used in World War II for gun sights, specifically in bomb sights and anti-aircraft weaponry. Also, experiments have been conducted to use calcite for a cloak of invisibility

Sources: Calcite is available on every continent.

Calcite as a Powerstone: Calcite will help to balance the emotions, remove fear, overcome depression, as well as simply dissolving problems standing in your way of achieving your highest potential. It is particularly helpful in removing phobias, as it will help to restore mental and emotional equilibrium.   It also has the ability to bring stability to one’s will, and increases inner strength.  Calcite is a very soothing and calming stone, as it will help calm overactive emotions and thoughts, as well it can also help immensely with the grieving process.

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Coral

Mohs Hardness Scale: 

 

Sources:

Coral as a Powerstone: 

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Carnelian

Mohs Hardness scale: 6-7

Carnelian is a brownish-red mineral which is commonly used as a semi-precious gemstone.  Sard, Onyx, as well as Sardonyx are are all varieties of  Chalcedony Quartz. Carnelian is a red form of Chalcedony.  Stones may be uniformly colored or faintly banded. It is told that the best carnelian specimens are from India, where it is placed in the sun to assist a slight change from brown shades to tints of red and orange.  Carnelian is one of the oldest known gemstones. It was widely used in ancient Rome to make insignia and seals for imprinting on letters or important documents because hot wax does not stick to carnelian. Carnelian is one of the twelve gemstones mentioned in the Bible as appearing on the Breastplate of Aaron. It also is one of the birthstones listed in the ancient Arabic, Hebrew and Roman tables.

Sources: Brazil, Uruguay, India and Madagascar.

Carneian as a Powerstone: Ancient Egyptians carried it on and about their bodies as a source of constant renewal and vitality. It was also told that in the Egyptian Book of the Dead that Carnelian was placed in tombs as “magic armor” for life after death.   The ancients often believed that Carnelian was good for combating a bad temper, such as anger that was thought to be the product of black magic. And Carnelian is known to offer protection from black magic. Many other ancient healers used Carnelian as a ailment for blood issues, as it was known as the “Blood of Isis”.  It is said that this stone will help cleanse and purify the blood, thus giving more physical energy. 

Carnelian was worn on the hand in ancient Egypt to still anger, as well as jealousy, envy, and hatred. It is still used to promote peace and harmony and to dispel depression as well.  It is used to counteract doubt ad negative thoughts, and can also be used in spells relating to these problems. It may confer patience. Also said to protect from ill wishers, driving away evil.

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Chalcedony

Mohs Hardness Scale: 6.5 - 7

The term chalcedony is derived from the name of the ancient Greek town Chalkedon in Asia Minor.

Chalcedony, which is found worldwide, is the name for a group of stones made of a microcrystalline or cryptocrystalline variety of quartz, which means the quartz crystals are too small to be seen without high magnification.  In jewelry usage, the name Chalcedony is usually applied only to the light blue translucent and waxy form. Other stones in this group are know as agate, jasper, petrified wood, bloodstone, petrified dinosaur bone, fire agate, tiger's eye, chrysocolla, chrysoprase, onyx, sardonyx, and carnelian.  Chalcedony is found in almost every color including: white, gray, black, brown, brownish red, orange, yellow, light to dark green, blue, lavender or, in the case of agates and jaspers, combinations of those colors.

Sources: United States, Austria, Czech Republic, Iceland, Mexico, Britain, New Zealand, Turkey, Russia, Brazil.

Chalcedony as a PowerStone: Chalcedony is mainly known and most popular in it’s blue hue.  It’s a stone with wonderfully gentle almost dreamy energy. Said to foster balance between mind, body and spirit, it is a stone of peace and calm. Told to reduce and often negate feelings of anger, irritation and hostility, Chalcedony absorbs the negative energy then dissipates it to prevent forward movement of the negativity.  Blue Chalcedony soothes and fosters mental and emotional stability and can engender emotional honesty.

 

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Chrysocolla

Mohs Hardness Scale: 2.5

Chrysocolla is a sharply colored mineral. Its color can be among the brightest shade of blue and green, and is caused by its copper content. Chrysocolla is often coated by a drusy layer of glossy clear Quartz, or intergrown together with the Quartz.   It should be noted that Chrysocolla got its name because its properties were first used to solder gold.  Chrysocolla has been known to man since the beginning of recorded history, its name is actually two words from Greek, “Chrysa” meaning Gold and “Kolla” which means glue.  Chrysocolla has a beautiful blue green color, and many people mistake it for turquoise. Because this mineral is very soft, it is not used for ornamental jewelry, but can be used as cabochons when properly polished.

Sources: Chrysocolla is found worldwide, though significant sources include the Congo (Zaire), Israel, Australia, Peru, Chile, Mexico, and in the U.S. in Arizona.

Chrysocolla as a Powerstone: Chrysocolla calms, cleanses and re-energises all the chakras.  It draws out guilt, heals heartache and increases the capacity to love.  Improves communication and opens psychic vision.  Encourages self-awareness and inner balance.  Imparts confidence and sensitivity.  Chrysocolla enhances personal power and inspires creativity.  Overcomes phobias by drawing out negativity and supplying motivation.  Reduces mental tension.  Promotes truth-telling and impartiality.  Alleviates guilt and brings in joy.

Chrysocolla treats arthritis, bone disease, osteoporosis, muscle spasms, blood disorders and lung problems.  It detoxifies the liver, kidneys and intestines.  Re-oxygenates the blood, regenerates the pancreas and regulates insulin.  Strengthens muscles and alleviates muscle cramps.  Chrysocolla heals infections, lowers blood pressure and soothes burns.

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Chrysoprase

Mohs Hardness Scale: 7

Chrysoprase is the green variety of Chalcedony. Its color ranges from a light, minty-green to a deep apple-green. The unique, rich color of Chrysoprase is caused by impurities of nickel, as this gemstone most frequently originates in nickel-rich Serpentine deposits.   Most green stones owe their color to chromium or vanadium, but chrysoprase derives its color from the nickel content.  Chrysoprase was used by the Greeks, Romans, and the Egyptians in jewelry and other ornamental objects and because of its semi-opaque green color, it is often mistaken for Imperial jadeite.  One of the most valuable chalcedony gem stones, chrysoprase is prized for its color and rarity,

Sources: Australia, Tanzania, Madagascar, India, Kazakhstan, and the United States (Arizona and California). Poland was an ancient source of Chrysoprase, as well as the only source of this material for hundreds of years, until the newer deposits were discovered in modern times.

Chrysoprase as a Powerstone: Chrysoprase helps to make conscious what was unconscious. It strengthens the workings of insight and the higher consciousness.  Chrysoprase is powerful stone. It is said to bring good fortune and prosperity, as well as business success. It facilitates self-expression, courage, hope, and the ability to use them wisely. It can bring happiness, which is partly because it helps its wearer get rid of negative thoughts and irritability. It also enhances and strengthens friendships. Chrysoprase is a stone of balance that equalize yin/yang energies and allows deep meditation. It can mend broken hearts and remove inferiority or superiority complexes. t is a powerful healing stone that is said to aid failing eyesight or other eye problems, immune system response, fertility issues, gout, mental illness, relieves fevers and excess body heat, and can help guard against sexually transmitted diseases. Note that healing crystal meanings are spiritual supports to healing and are not prescriptions or healthcare information. 

 

 
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Crystal Quartz

Mohs Hardness Scale: 7

 

Sources:

 

Coral as a Powerstone: 

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Dumortierite

Mohs Hardness Scale: 7

Dumortierite often forms in an attractive blue color and can be used as an ornamental stone. Though it is most commonly perceived as blue, especially in lapidary use, other colors include purple, pink, gray and brown. Dumortierite specimens are composed of dense fibers, giving them a tough durability.

Dumortierite often forms as inclusions in Quartz, and this combination results in a natural blue Quartz gemstone. These are known in the gemstone market as "Dumortierite Quartz" and they are becoming increasingly popular as a minor blue gemstone. Dumortierite is named after French paleontologist Eugene Dumortier (1803-1873).

Sources: France, Madagascar, Canada, Poland, Peru, Brazil, US

Dumortierite as a Powerstone: This dark blue stone, has a strong ability to aid intellectual activity within the brain, and will assist you to develop enhanced mental abilities. Dumortierite is a highly useful aid for anyone who is studying as it assists the retention of information. Dumortierite is also excellent for enhancing your will power, and capacity for self mastery.  It is a stone that gives you the ability to stand up for yourself by making you more self aware which in turn increases your self love.    It will help you to take control of your own life and increase your level of patience.

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Emerald

Moh's Hardness Scale: 7.5-8

Emerald, the green variety of Beryl, is the most famous and valuable green gemstone. Its beautiful green color, combined with durability and rarity, make it one of the most expensive gemstones. Emeralds are fascinating gemstones. They have the most beautiful, most intense and most radiant green that can possibly be imagined: emerald green. Deep green is the most desired color in Emeralds. In general the paler the color of an Emerald, the lesser its value.  In top quality, fine emeralds are even more valuable than diamonds.

The name emerald comes from the Greek 'smaragdos' via the Old French 'esmeralde', and really just means 'green gemstone'. Innumerable fantastic stories have grown up around this magnificent gem.  Ancient Roman's believed emeralds to be the stone of the goddess Venus and represented love and beauty.

Sources: The finest Emeralds are traditionally from Colombia, but other sources include brazil, China, Afghanistan, Russia, and the US.

Emerald as a Powerstone: Although Emerald is a stone of prosperity and riches, it is not just a materialistic stone. It also encourages spiritual growth, clear vision, memory, faith, intelligence and communication, inspiration, joy, intuition, clairvoyance, sensuality, love, romance, beauty, harmony, tranquility, serenity, clarity, cleansing, justice, friendship and unity. It seems that more kinds of physical healing have been ascribed to the emerald than to almost any other stone.

A stone of wisdom, love, and great harmony, an Emerald shall be a bridge between two people when the gem is given in love.   It is said to benefit one’s intuition, promoting communication though truthfulness.

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Flourite

Moh's Hardness Scale: 4

Fluorite is a very popular mineral, and it naturally occurs in all colors of the spectrum. It is one of the most varied colored minerals in the mineral kingdom, and the colors may be very intense and almost electric.Fluorite makes a beautiful gemstone that comes in all colors, and can often be multicolored with two or more contrasting color within the same gemstone. Multicolored Fluorite gemstones often show banding patterns.  Fluorite is one of the more famous fluorescent minerals. Many specimens strongly fluoresce, in a great variation of color. In fact, the word "fluorescent" is derived from the mineral Fluorite. The name of the element fluorine is also derived from Fluorite, as Fluorite is by far the most common and well-known fluorine mineral.

Sources: Canada, China, England, France, India, Mexico, Morocco, Namibia, Russia, South Africa Spain, Switzerland and the United States

Flourite as Powerstone: Fluorite may can be used as a stone for meditation to assist in energizing the body and raising one’s powers of concentration.It absorbs and neutralises negative energy and stress. It encourages positivity, balances the energies, and improves balance and coordination, both physically and mentally. 

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Garnet

Mohs Hardness Scale: 6.5-7

Garnet, the January birthstone, derived its name from the Latin word granatus, meaning like a grain, which refers to the mode of occurrence wherein crystals resemble grains or seeds embedded in the matrix. Garnet is a family of minerals having similar physical and crystalline properties. They all have the same general chemical formula.  Garnet species are found in many colors including red, orange, yellow, green, purple, brown, blue, black, pink and colorless. The rarest of these is the blue garnet, discovered in the late 1990s in Bekily, Madagascar. It is also found in parts of the United States, Russia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Turkey. It changes color from blue-green in the daylight to purple in incandescent light, as a result it is commonly referred to as "color change garnet".    Although the use of garnet as a gemstone for jewelry is widely known, garnet is more often used for industrial puposes.  Mixed with very high pressure water, garnet is used to cut steel and other materials in water jets.  Garnet sand is also used in the water filtration process.

Sources: South Africa, Brazil, Australia, the United States, Mexico and Myanmar.

Garnet as a Powerstone: Garnets have been widely known for thousands of years, and it has long been known as the warriors stone, as soldiers from the world over wore or carried this gem as a talisman against death and injury.  But it was also said to bring victory, peace and tranquility.  Garnet will help to alleviate depression and is used for gentle spiritual healing. It is also commonly considered a good stone for successful business ventures. It will assist in building one’s self-confidence, especially if one’s chosen field in in the creative sphere. Garnet will bring positive thoughts as well as boosting energy. It will help overcome writer’s block and general lack of inspiration in any field.

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Hematite

Moh's Hardness Scale: 5.5-6

Hematite is one of the most abundant minerals on Earth's surface and in the shallow crust. It is an iron oxide with a chemical composition of Fe2O3. It is a common rock-forming mineral found in sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous rocks at locations throughout the world.  Hematite is a mineral, colored black to steel or silver-gray, brown to reddish brown, or red. It is mined as the main ore of iron.  Quite a strange stone indeed, Hematite is sold as a heavy, silvery metallic black luster and bulbous shape, with an inner core stained the color of blood.  The name hematite is derived from the Greek word for blood "haima" because hematite can be red, as in rouge, a powdered form of hematite.  Hematite generally occurs as massive opaque material with a metallic luster, showing an incredible blood red color when cut or ground.  The color of hematite lends itself to use as a pigment. 

Sources: China, Australia, Brazil, India, Russia, Ukraine, South Africa, Canada, Venezuela, and the United States.

Hematite as a Powerstone: Related to the blood, Hematite is used to assist in ailments related to blood circulation, as well as the treatment of diseases such as anemia or embolisms.  Told to assist one’s body in the absorption of iron into the small intestine, this in turn improves the oxygen supply to one’s body, increasing blood flow.

Besides Hematites association with blood and healing, it is also known as a ‘stone for the mind’, or a ‘stone of the higher mind’, as it brings one incredible grounding and calm helping one to focus and organize the mind. Assisting in original thought, logical thinking as well as mathematics, it acts well as a firm stabilizing force.

   
 

Howlite

Mohs Hardness Scale: 3.5

Howlite, which is named for its discoverer Henry How (a Nova Scotia geologist), is one of those minerals that is more famous for imitating another mineral. In this case the other mineral is turquoise, a phosphate gemstone. Although howlite is always white or gray, because of its porous nature it can accept dyes fairly easily and be dyed a turquoise blue. Howlite is also sold in its natural state, sometimes under the misleading trade names of "white turquoise" or "white buffalo turquoise," or the derived name "white buffalo stone."

Source: The United States, specifically California, is the source for almost all of the Howlite mineral.

Howlite as a Powerstone: Howlite is best known for it’s strong associations with self-awareness, creativity, and improving one’s emotional well being and attitudes. It enhances character building, a sense of decency, and encourages the development of desirable personal aspect.  In general, Howlite aids in dispelling anger, resentfulness, selfishness, and allows one to look inside the for answers. It also aids in communicating the negative emotions with a clearer emotional expression, which will always result in calmer ‘confrontations’.

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Iolite

Moh's Hardness Scale: 7-7.5

Iolite is a lovely violet/blue color and is also referred to as Cordierite, Dichroite, and Indialite.  Cordierite is named after Louis Cordier (1777-1861), a French geologist and mineralogist who was a founder of the French Geological Society.  It is dichroic, meaning that it appears full of color in one direction and completely colorless in another.  The name Iolite is initially derived from the Greek ios, which means violet. Iolite is usually a purplish blue when cut properly, with a softness to the color that can be quite soothing as well as attractive.

Iolite is also called the Viking Stone. It was said that it was used in thin sheets by the ancient Vikings as a "lens" to see during their ocean voyages, as the one of the world's first polarising filter, and is often known as the Viking stone. 

Sources: India, Sri Lanka, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, and Brazil. The Vikings likely mined Iolite from deposits in Norway and/or Greenland.

Iolite as a Powerstone: Iolite is said to be quite helpful when dealing with addictions of all kinds including alcoholism, assisting in the detoxification as well as maintaining sobriety.  Conversely it is also said to grant the ability to consume alcohol without exhibiting the effects.  Iolite is a vision stone.  It clears thought forms, opening intuition.  Aids in understanding and releasing the causes of addiction.  Helps you to express your true self, free from the expectations of others.  Iolite releases discord within relationships.  It encourages taking responsibility for yourself, overcoming codependency within your partnership.

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Jade

Moh's Hardness Scale: 7

Jade or “yu” (meaning precious stone) as it is called in China, is the family name for Jadeite and Nephrite. The term Jade refers to a fine-grained, mineral aggregate composed of either one or both of two other minerals: Jadeite and Nephrite.  All jade is composed of highly intergrown, interlocking crystals of one or both of these minerals.  Jadeite is most famous for its gem form of Jade. Jewelry and ornamental carvings were made from Jade throughout history. Jade was very precious in some ancient societies, and was sometimes worth even more than Gold.   Its colors varies from light to dark green, but it may also be other colors such as white, gray, and purple. 

Jade is said to bless whatever it touches, serving mankind across the globe for nearly 6,000 years. For primitive peoples in the British Isles, its toughness, and ability to polish and sharpen made it a favored stone for axe heads, knives and weapons. Indigenous tribes of Mexico, Central and South America, and New Zealand carved it into deity masks and ritual artifacts, even cast it into wells as an offering to the water spirits for fresh and plentiful water. Jade has been the most highly esteemed stone in China throughout recorded history, and was valued for its beauty and powers of healing and protection. An endless variety of gems, vessels, incense burners, beads, burial items and statues have been wondrously carved from Jade, as well as musical instruments and pendants inscribed with poetry.

Sources: China, Myanmar, Russia, Siberia, New Zealand, Canada, Mexico, and the USA

Jade as a Powerstone: Jade is a symbol of serenity and purity.  It signifies wisdom gathered in tranquility. Jade is the stone of calm in the midst of a storm.  It increases love and nurturing.  A protective stone, Jade keeps the wearer from harm and brings harmony.  Jade attracts good luck and friendship.  It stabilizes the personality and promotes self-sufficiency.  Soothes the mind, releasing negative thoughts.  Stimulates ideas.  A “dream stone”, Jade brings insightful dreams.  It aids emotional release, especially of irritability.  Jade encourages you to become who you really are.  It is cherished as a protective talisman, assuring long life and a peaceful death, and is considered a powerful healing stone. 

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Jasper

Moh's Hardness Scale: 6.5 - 7

Jasper is an opaque form of Chalcedony, which is a microcrystalline variety of the mineral Quartz. It often contains an abundance of impurities, and therefore some regard it as a rock instead of a mineral. Jasper is usually associated with brown, yellow, or reddish colors, but may be used to describe other opaque colors of Chalcedony such as dark or mottled green and orange.  Jasper comes in many sizes and can sometimes be found in big chunks usually near quartz veins. Jasper’s most common hues are red, brown and yellow, however it can sometimes be found with plenty of mineral inclusions such as Hematite or Goethite. When other minerals are present, Jasper takes on wild and attractive hues and attributes. For instance Hematite can form rings or stripes throughout the Jasper similar to Agate, and spots can occur giving it a leopard type or tiger type attribute. Some forms of Jasper are banded, and these banded Jaspers may appear similar to Agate, but unlike Agate they are opaque.

Sources: Africa, Argentina, Australia, Canada, Iceland, China, Russia, and USA.

Jasper as a Powerstone: Legend says that Jasper was used to drive away evil spirits and protect the bearer against snake and spider bites. In the fourth century, it was thought to bring about the rain when directed correctly.  Traditionally, when worn as a decorative necklace, Jasper is known to combat exhaustion and fatigue.   Jasper provides protection and absorbs negative energy.  It balances yin and yang.

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Kunzite

Moh's Hardness Scale: 7

Kunzite is the pink to light purple gem variety of the mineral Spodumene. Spodumene is a common mineral, but only in several localities does it occur in transparent gem form. The main gem form of Spodumene is Kunzite.  Kunzite and Hiddenite were not recognized as entirely separate minerals until 1879. When Kunzite was found to be a form of the Spodumene (discovered in 1877)  family, it was named for the gemologist George F. Kunz.  Kunzite has a lovely pink color and is becoming increasingly popular in the gemstone market.  Some kunzite is light sensitive and the colour will fade over time when exposed to strong sunlight.

Sources: United States, Madagascar, Brazil, Canada, Mexico, and Myanmar

Kunzite as a Powerstone: Kunzite is a stone that awakens the heart center. It produces loving thoughts and communication. It connects you to universal love and is beneficial to those who find it hard to meditate. It is a protective stone that has the power to dispel negativity. It encourages self expression and allows free expression. It removes obstacles of life and helps to adjust to pressures of life. Promote tolerance for the self and others. Helpful in reducing stress related anxiety, Kunzite is excellent for panic attacks.  Offering a calmness to accept situations that are out of one’s control, particularly old buried experiences that have caused deep emotional discomfort, Kunzite has the power to dispel and dissolve this pain. Healing of this emotional debris frees up one’s emotions, healing heartache, and allowing one to trust the inner self once again.

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Kyanite

Moh's Hardness Scale: 5

Kyanite is one of the most attractive blue minerals in nature.  Kyanite, whose name derives from the Greek word kuanos sometimes referred to as "kyanos", meaning deep blue.  It sometimes exhibits intense shades of blue, or even multiple shades with color zoning in a single crystal. The color of Kyanite, combined with its well-formed and sometimes large crystals, make this mineral appreciated by both novice and expert collectors alike.

Kyanite is strongly anisotropic, meaning it has a different hardness depending on the angle. In fact, it is the most well-known anisotropic mineral. The vertical hardness of Kyanite ranges from 4.5 to 5.5, and horizontal hardness from 6 to 7.

Source: Switzerland, Brazil, Nepal, Russia, Kenya, Tanzania, and USA

Kyanite as a Powerstone: Kyanite has a calming effect on the whole being, bringing tranquility.  It encourages communication on all levels.  It drives away anger, frustration, confusion and stress and helps to provide a capacity for linear and logical thought.  Kyanite provides a stimulating energy, encouraging perserverance in and support of activities and situations which would normally reduce one’s strength.  It is a tool used for relaxation and meditation, to enhance creativity, broaden perception, and enhancing understanding of others. Kyanite fosters tranquility, creating a positive effect on one’s dreams, visualizations, and foresight.

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Labradorite

Moh's Hardness Scale: 6.5 - 7

Labradorite is an unusual mineral. It can display a beautiful iridescent play of colors, caused by internal fractures in the mineral that reflect light back and forth, dispersing it into different colors. Some specimens of labradorite exhibit a schiller effect, which is a strong play of iridescent blue, green, red, orange, and yellow colors.  Labradorite is so well known for these spectacular displays of color that the phenomenon is known as Labradorescence.  Labradorite originates from Canada, discovered in 1770 on St. Paul Island in Labrador.  Although the Inuit peoples claim Labradorite fell from the frozen fire of the Aurora Borealis, and transformed an ordinary grey stone into something extraordinary with its beautiful display of colors.

Sources: Australia, Canada, Finland, Madagascar, Ukraine, USA

Labradorite as a Powerstone: As legend dictates that labradorite, an ordinary grey/black stone, transformsin to something extraordinary by  flashing all the colors of the Aurora Borealis.  Labradorite is a stone of transformation.  Labradorite is a useful companion through change, imparting strength and perseverance.  It balances the inner turmoil that occurs during any great change in life and brings a sense of inner calm.   Excellent for strengthening intuition.  It can assist in strengthening your will and feelings of inner worth, along with building inner resolve, perseverance, and purpose.  The cool blues of its labradorescence bring stability to the mind and body which help with reducing stress and anxiety.

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Lapis Lazuli

Moh's Hardness Scale: 5

Lapis lazuli is an ancient and beautiful stone that has been prized through out history for its beautiful blue colorand treated with reverence.  Lapis Lazuli is a stone created of other stones….Lazurite, Sodalite, Calcite, and Pyrite to name a few! The color, composition, and presentation is going to vary depending on the differing amounts of each mineral.  It is the deep intense blue with white and Pyrite that seem to gain the most attention. Afghanistan seems to have produced the best quality of Lapis for quite some time.  Lapis lazuli was being mined in northeast Afghanistan as early as the 7th millennium BC.  Lapis beads have been found at neolithic burials in Mehrgarh, the Caucasus, and even as far from Afghanistan as Mauritania.  It was used for the eyebrows on the funeral mask of King Tutankhamun (1341–1323 BC).   It was ground into powder and made into ultramarine, the finest and most expensive of all medium blue pigments. It was used by the most important artists of the Renaissance and Baroque, including Masaccio, Perugino, Titian and Vermeer, and was often reserved for the clothing of the central figure of the painting, especially the Virgin Mary.

Sources: Afghanistan has been one of the finst resources for Lapis Lazuli for over 6,000 year.  Other deposits can be found in Russian, Canada, Italy, the Andes mountains, Pakistan, Burma and the USA.

Lapis Lazuli as a Powerstone: Lapis has been considered "the stone of kings" and there is nothing more valuable to any ruler than wisdom and truth.  Lapis promotes clear understanding and intuition.  Said to help bring one to confront the truth, wherever one may find it.  Lapis Lazuli will also help one to allow truth to be the teacher when it is necessary; encouraging self awareness, standing up for oneself, and taking charge of one’s life.  It also allows self-expression and reveals inner truth, providing qualities of honesty, compassion and morality to one's personality. 

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Larimar

Moh' Hardness: 7

This stone is known by many ‘names’ : The Atlantis Stone, The Dolphin Stone, Stefilia’s Stone. It is in fact a lovely variety of Pectolite.  Found only in the Caribbean blue waters around the Dominican Republic.

Told to have first been discovered in 1916 in the southwest of the Dominican Republic by a Spanish born priest of the name Miguel DOmingo Fuertes Loren, who it is said to have reported the discovery to the Archbishop, but no mining action was taken at the time.  Said then to have been discovered by a Peace Corp. worker in 1974, Mr. Mendez, it was given it’s name for his daughter Lari for ‘Larisa’ and Mar from the Spanish for ‘Sea’.

Larimar is a stone that unites the ancient energies of  fire and water due it being found in the Carribean waters near the Dominican Republic, but having volcanic origins as well.  After is discovery in 1974, it was analyzed by geologists as well as the Smithsonian Institute, and all agreed that the Larimar stone had volcanic origins and therefore belongs to the family of Pectolite. Larimar being the only blue or teal colored Pectolite to this day. 

Sources: Dominican Republic

Larimar as a Powerstone: Larimar is said to represent peace, clarity, healing, and love.  Said to bring the gentle, soft, healing energy of the sea to open one’s heart and mind. Soothing and uplifting emotions, relieving fear, hurt, trauma, depression and pain; and assisting with one’s patience, acceptance, and simplicity.  Larimar is good for calming excess energies and it balances energies.

 

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Lepidolite

Moh's Hardness Scale: 2.5 - 3

Lepidolite is a lilac-gray or rose-colored member of the mica group.  Lepidolite is an uncommon mica and has only in the past decade become available on the mineral market in large quantities.  It is a matrix mineral to Tourmaline and Quartz, providing them with a very aesthetic and glittery base.  Lepidolite is an ore of lithium and forms in granitic masses that contain a substantial amount of lithium.  Because of this amount of lithium in lepidolite, it has several industrial and pharmaceutical uses.  Lithium has several fundamental commercial applications, including heat-resistant glass and ceramics, greases, high strength-to-weight alloys and lithium batteries.  Lithium is also used as a neurological drug for mood stabilization.

Sources: Afghanistan, Africa, Brazil, and USA.

Lepidolite as a Powerstone: Lepidolite aids in overcoming any kind of emotional or mental dependency, supporting in the release of addictions and complaints of all kinds, including anorexia.  It encourages independence and self love and trust.  Lepidolite combines its power of objectivity with direction and unimpeded communication, focusing on what is important and making it an excellent stone for business pursuits.  Lepidolite relieves exhaustion and aids in the relief of tension and related disorders.

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Malachite

Moh'd Hadness Scale: 3.5 - 4

Malachite is a very popular mineral with its intense green color and beautiful banded masses.  Malachite is usually found in large opaque green masses, copper being the cause for the coloring. It often crystallizes in the form of crusts, tufts, masses, or rosettes. But a few will also exhibit a drusy of small crystals of Malachite on the surface.   Most often the crystals are entirely too small for faceting, but larger specimens are carved in many way to reveal the banding to it’s best ability.  Dense banded specimens are often sliced and polished to bring out their beautiful coloring. The bands may consist of concentric rings with interesting patterns; such specimens are highly sought after. These concentric banded specimens are most commonly from African sources. Polished, banded Malachite has been carved into ornaments and worn as jewelry for thousands of years, and in some ancient civilizations it was thought to be a protection from evil if worn as jewelry.

Sources: Africa, Australia, China, France, Brazil, USA

Malachite as a Powerstone: Malachite teaches one how to take responsibility for one’s own thoughts, actions and emotions, releasing inhibitions, and encouraging one to express true feelings. Malachite also allows one to feel empathy for another; so that one may be more understanding of the effects of thoughts, actions, and emotions.  Malachite may help one to look deep within oneself and to stimulate instinctive and intuitive reasoning, allowing for positive change which in turn facilitates advancement.

Malachite is also a very protective stone, being especially helpful for general protection, protection from evil, protection during pregnancy and childbirth, and protection for children. It is also an excellent protection stone during flying and other travel.

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Moldavite

Moh's Hardness Scale: 5

Moldavite is known as the gem that fell from the Sky.   It is the rarest form of Tektite known, formed over 15 million years ago.  It is the only tektite of gem quality.   The current overwhelming consensus among earth scientists is that moldavites were formed during the impact of a giant meteorite in present-day Nördlinger Ries in Germany.  99% of all moldavite come from this general area.  It is the only gemstone that is believed to be of extraterrestrial origin.  The first Moldavites were found in 1787 in Czechoslovakia, by the Moldau River, which is where the name Moldavite is said to have been derived.  Due to its origin, there is a limited amount of this rare gemstone available throughout the world.  The total amount of Moldavite scattered around the world is estimated at 275 tons.

There is a great deal of lore that surrounds this stone.  Some believe that Lucifer’s crown was made of Moldavite, which melted as he fell to Earth after being cast down from Heaven.  Others believe that the Holy Grail was carved from Moldavite. 

Sources: Germany, and areas in the Czech Republic

Moldavite as a Powerstone: This star-born stone that was created out of a violent impact with Earth is believed to be a stone of transformation and perserverance. Moldavite is believed to aid in transforming us into our highest selves. It is said to bring mental clarity and bring one's mind to purpose, putting an end to nervous energies and doing away with anything that does not serve a person's highest purpose.   Moldavite is believed to break pointless emotional and mental bonds that are hinder personal growht and enlightenment.  Moldavites are among the most powerful gemstone for spiritual development and expansion of one’s consciousness. It seems to engender and accelerate one’s inner growth and evolution towards one’s spiritual truth.

 
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Ammonite

Mohs Hardness scale: 4.5-5

Ammonites were free-swimming molluscs of the ancient oceans, living around the same time that the dinosaurs walked the Earth and disappearing during the same extinction event. They came in a range of sizes, from tiny species only a couple of centimetres across, to large ones reaching over two metres in diameter. The animal would have lived in the last and largest of a chain of spiralled chambers. Ammonite generally refers to the fossilized shell of these ctreatures, these shells are made up of aragonite. While aragonite is the main component of ammonite, other minerals can be found in it as well. Mainly pyrite, calcite and silica, though other trace elements are quite common.

Sources: Ammonite fossils are found on every continent.

Ammonite as Power Stone: Ammonites are a stone of protection.  It provides for insight and it helps to assist one in seeing the ‘whole picture.’ It gives stability to it's user.   In healing, ammonite will assist with general good health, stamina and high energy. It can help transmute negativity to smoothly flowing energy.  Ammonite encourages growth and change.  Ammonites encourage us to leave the past behind and continue to progress towards new phases of our life.

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Angelite

Mohs Hardness scale: 3.5

Angelite or Blue Anhydrite is a fairly new discovery in the gem and mineral world.  Angelite was discovered in 1987 in Peru, during the Harmonic Conversion, it's colors may be white, gray or colorless, as well as blue to violet. Angelite is formed from celestite that has been compressed for many millions of years.  Fine specimens of Anhydrite have been found in Mexico and Peru that show good crystal habit, a nice blue color and even a play of light internally in the crystal.  Lilac blue Anhydrite is commonly referred to as Angelite, for it's "Angelic" color.  Rare specimens of Angelite become flourescent under UV light also addly to its heavenly beauty.

Sources: Mexico, Peru, Germany and New Mexico

Angelite as Power Stone: Angelite is a beautiful and calming stone, connecting you to the Angels, Spiritual Guides and the spiritual realm.  You will also be able to easily connect with your higher self in this way.  Angelite brings inner peace, tranquility, calm and focus to the highest realms of heavenly light.  It is one stone that truly holds the energy of the force we know as Karuna: compassion, pity and tenderness.  It also implies devoted action to alleviate suffering.  Angelite can helps to rejuvenate and regenerate ill and depleted areas. It is very useful in any wasting type sickness.

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Apatite

Mohs Hardness Scale: 5

Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals.  Oddly enough, the primary use of apatite is in the manufacturing of fertilizer – it is a source of phosphorus.  Apatite is the most common phosphate mineral, and is the main source of the phosphorus required by plants. The bones and teeth of most animals, including humans, are composed of calcium phosphate, which is the same material as Apatite.  While tooth enamel is the hardest material in the human body, apatite is not especially hard when compared to other gemstones, with a rating of only 5 on the Mohs scale. So apatite jewelry is usually confined to earrings and pendants or occasional-wear rings with protective settings. Apatite is also sensitive to heat and acid, so should not be worn when working with chemicals.  While apatite is a common mineral, gem-quality apatite is quite rare. Apatite is known by gemstone connoisseurs especially for two colors; the Paraiba-like blue-green, and the leek-green color that once earned apatite the name 'asparagus stone.' There is also a very rare deep purple apatite, found in the aptly named Mount Apatite in Maine, USA.

Sources: United States, Brazil, Burma and Madagascar.

Apatite as a Powerstone: Apatite is said to enhance communication and self-expression and can be a useful stone to keep near you during public speaking. It can further help, public speaking, by calming the nerves and giving you the self-confidence to stand up there and talk. In healing Apatite is believed to suppress the appetite and to raise the metabolic rate so may be useful for those wishing to lose weight.  



 
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Aquamarine

Mohs Hardness Scale: 7.5-8

Aquamarine (from Latin: aqua marina, "water of the sea") is a blue or cyan variety of beryl.  Aquamarine is a member of the beryl family and ranges in color from an almost colorless pale blue to blue-green or teal. The most prized color is a deep-blue aqua color.  Aquamarine is one of the official birthstones for those born in March. Aquamarine is exceptionally hard and has an outstanding vitreous (glass-like) luster. Like seawater, aquamarine can be light-blue, dark-blue, blue-green and green-blue. The more saturated the color, the higher the value, although almost all aquamarine is typically a lighter blue tone. A deeply saturated blue is the most desirable color, but it is very rare in larger specimens. The intensity of color is one of the most important criteria when evaluating colored gemstones, but unlike other gems, aquamarine is not diminished by lesser color intensity; many people actually prefer the more crystal-clear lighter gemstones over the richer, deeper colors.

Sources: Australia, Myanmar (Burma), China, India, Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Zambia and Zimbabwe, as well as in several U.S. locations.

Aquamarine as a Powerstone: Aquamarine's light blue arouses feelings of sympathy, trust, harmony and friendship. Good feelings. Feelings which are based on mutuality and which prove their worth in lasting relationships. The blue of aquamarine is a divine, eternal colour, because it is the colour of the sky. However, aquamarine blue is also the colour of water with its life-giving force. And aquamarine really does seem to have captured the lucid blue of the oceans. No wonder, when you consider that according to the myths that it originated in the treasure chest of fabulous mermaids, and has, since ancient times, been regarded as the sailors' lucky stone. Its name is derived from the Latin 'aqua' (water) and 'mare' (sea). It is said that its strengths are developed to their best advantage when it is placed in water which is bathed in sunlight. However, it is surely better still to wear aquamarine, since according to the old traditions this promises a happy marriage and is said to bring the woman who wears it joy and wealth into the bargain. Aquamarine is also a stone of love and fidelity.  It is believed to reawaken love and passion in long and tired relationships.An ideal gem, not only for loving and married couples.

 

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Aventurine

Mohs Hardness Scale: 6.5

Aventurine is a form of quartz, characterised by its translucency and the presence of platy mineral inclusions that give a shimmering or glistening effect termed aventurescence.Aventurine is a translucent to opaque variety of microcrystalline quartz. It contains small inclusions of shiny minerals which give the stone a sparkling effect known as aventurescence. Inclusions of mica will give a silverish sheen, while inclusions of hematite give a reddish or grayish sparkle.  Aventurine ranges in color from green, peach, brown, blue and a creamy green. Besides its uses in jewelry, aventurine is also used for ornamental purposes like vases, bowls, and figurines.

Sources: Brazil, India, Austria, Russia, and Tanzania.

Aventurine as a PowerStone: Aventurine is known as the “Stone of Opportunity,” thought to be the luckiest of all crystals, especially in manifesting prosperity and wealth, or for increasing favor in competitions or games of chance. Its winning energy makes it a great ally for boosting one’s chances in any situation - a first date, tax audit, even landing a promotion. One needs only to be near it to derive its benefits. Aventurine is ideal for soothing hot tempers or bad moods, and can greatly diminish the effects of domestic strife between spouses. Many believe that aventurine has the capacity to calm a troubled spirit and bring about inner peace.

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Azurite

Mohs Hardness scale:3.5 - 4

Azurite is a soft, deep blue copper mineral produced by weathering of copper ore deposits.  Azurite is one of the two basic copper(II) carbonate minerals, the other being bright green malachite.   Azurite owes its name to its beautiful azure-blue color, which makes it a very popular and well-known mineral. It usually occurs with green Malachite, which may form green stains or specks on Azurite crystals.   Azurite was used as a blue pigment for centuries.  Depending on the degree of fineness to which it was ground, it gave a wide range of blues.

Sources: Australia, Chile, Russia, Africa, China.

Azurite as a Powerstone: Azurite tempers the mind; it releases stress and confusion, and alleviates worry, indecision, and thoughts that linger in the back of the consciousness.   Azurite enhances focus and concentration, memorization and retention of information. Azurite was sacred to the Egyptians who believed it was an aid to spiritual communication. Many believe that this stone helps to reduce anger and to increase psychic awareness.

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Agate

Mohs Hardness Scale: 7-9

Agate is a variety of chalcedony formed from layers of quartz which usually show varicolored bands. It usually occurs as rounded nodules or veins.  Although agates may be found in various kinds of rock, they are classically associated with volcanic rocks.  Often tiny quartz crystals form within the stone and add to the beauty and uniqueness of individual stones. These crystals are called  druzy. Lapidaries often cut just the drusy from an agate and jewelers use these drusy cabochons as the main stone or as an accent stone in their jewelry designs.  Agate is a relatively inexpensive stone except for some varieties with unusual banded or scenic markings.

Sources: Africa, Asia, Brazil, Egypt, Germany, India, Italy, Mexico, Nepal, and the USA.

Agate as a Pwerstone: Agate is believed to discern truth, accept circumstances, and is a powerful emotional healer. Legend says that Agate improves memory and concentration, increases stamina and encourages honesty.  It is believed to prevent insomnia and insure pleasant dreams, to enhance personal courage and protect one against danger. Agate provides a calming influence, improves perception, concentration and helps to develop and increase one's analytical talents.

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Botswanna Agate

Mohs Hardness scale: 7

Agate from the African country of Botswana banded with fine parallel lines of white, purple, or peach.  Botswana Agates tend to be considered a favorite of the general rock collectors because of their sharp constrasting white, gray and black bands as well as their shadowing effects. White, black and gray are typcial colors, and some agates have been found with colors of lavendar, purple, orange,  red and yellow with latter colors being most rare. There are some pink to white agates found in  the same area as result of weathering ("bleaching"). It is common to see them in small sizes (an once to half-pound), but some larger do show up from time to time but they tend to be more fractured.

Sources: Botswana, Africa

Botswana Agate as a Powerstone: Botswana agate is sometimes called the "change stone" because of its property of helping one handle change in a positive way. It gently helps one make transitions of any kind in a way that change is not as difficult or painful as could be without it; it is a comforting stone. Botswana agate is helpful in overcoming addictions and other self-destructive compulsive behavior patterns, as well as dealing with repressed emotional issues. As a success stone, it helps one achieve and cope with success. It is also a stone of sensuality. It is beneficial to the nervous system and can help rid the body of toxins, as well as help in the healing of broken bones.

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Calcite

Mohs Hardness Scale: 3

Calcite is a rock-forming mineral with a chemical formula of CaCO3. It is extremely common and found throughout the world in sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous rocks. Some geologists consider it to be a "ubiquitous mineral" - one that is found everywhere.  It occurs in a seemingly unlimited variety of shapes and colors. It constitutes a major portion of many of the earth's rocks. Some interesting facts about calcite are high-grade optical calcite was used in World War II for gun sights, specifically in bomb sights and anti-aircraft weaponry. Also, experiments have been conducted to use calcite for a cloak of invisibility

Sources: Calcite is available on every continent.

Calcite as a Powerstone: Calcite will help to balance the emotions, remove fear, overcome depression, as well as simply dissolving problems standing in your way of achieving your highest potential. It is particularly helpful in removing phobias, as it will help to restore mental and emotional equilibrium.   It also has the ability to bring stability to one’s will, and increases inner strength.  Calcite is a very soothing and calming stone, as it will help calm overactive emotions and thoughts, as well it can also help immensely with the grieving process.

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Coral

Mohs Hardness Scale: 

 

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Coral as a Powerstone: 

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Carnelian

Mohs Hardness scale: 6-7

Carnelian is a brownish-red mineral which is commonly used as a semi-precious gemstone.  Sard, Onyx, as well as Sardonyx are are all varieties of  Chalcedony Quartz. Carnelian is a red form of Chalcedony.  Stones may be uniformly colored or faintly banded. It is told that the best carnelian specimens are from India, where it is placed in the sun to assist a slight change from brown shades to tints of red and orange.  Carnelian is one of the oldest known gemstones. It was widely used in ancient Rome to make insignia and seals for imprinting on letters or important documents because hot wax does not stick to carnelian. Carnelian is one of the twelve gemstones mentioned in the Bible as appearing on the Breastplate of Aaron. It also is one of the birthstones listed in the ancient Arabic, Hebrew and Roman tables.

Sources: Brazil, Uruguay, India and Madagascar.

Carneian as a Powerstone: Ancient Egyptians carried it on and about their bodies as a source of constant renewal and vitality. It was also told that in the Egyptian Book of the Dead that Carnelian was placed in tombs as “magic armor” for life after death.   The ancients often believed that Carnelian was good for combating a bad temper, such as anger that was thought to be the product of black magic. And Carnelian is known to offer protection from black magic. Many other ancient healers used Carnelian as a ailment for blood issues, as it was known as the “Blood of Isis”.  It is said that this stone will help cleanse and purify the blood, thus giving more physical energy. 

Carnelian was worn on the hand in ancient Egypt to still anger, as well as jealousy, envy, and hatred. It is still used to promote peace and harmony and to dispel depression as well.  It is used to counteract doubt ad negative thoughts, and can also be used in spells relating to these problems. It may confer patience. Also said to protect from ill wishers, driving away evil.

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Chalcedony

Mohs Hardness Scale: 6.5 - 7

The term chalcedony is derived from the name of the ancient Greek town Chalkedon in Asia Minor.

Chalcedony, which is found worldwide, is the name for a group of stones made of a microcrystalline or cryptocrystalline variety of quartz, which means the quartz crystals are too small to be seen without high magnification.  In jewelry usage, the name Chalcedony is usually applied only to the light blue translucent and waxy form. Other stones in this group are know as agate, jasper, petrified wood, bloodstone, petrified dinosaur bone, fire agate, tiger's eye, chrysocolla, chrysoprase, onyx, sardonyx, and carnelian.  Chalcedony is found in almost every color including: white, gray, black, brown, brownish red, orange, yellow, light to dark green, blue, lavender or, in the case of agates and jaspers, combinations of those colors.

Sources: United States, Austria, Czech Republic, Iceland, Mexico, Britain, New Zealand, Turkey, Russia, Brazil.

Chalcedony as a PowerStone: Chalcedony is mainly known and most popular in it’s blue hue.  It’s a stone with wonderfully gentle almost dreamy energy. Said to foster balance between mind, body and spirit, it is a stone of peace and calm. Told to reduce and often negate feelings of anger, irritation and hostility, Chalcedony absorbs the negative energy then dissipates it to prevent forward movement of the negativity.  Blue Chalcedony soothes and fosters mental and emotional stability and can engender emotional honesty.

 

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Chrysocolla

Mohs Hardness Scale: 2.5

Chrysocolla is a sharply colored mineral. Its color can be among the brightest shade of blue and green, and is caused by its copper content. Chrysocolla is often coated by a drusy layer of glossy clear Quartz, or intergrown together with the Quartz.   It should be noted that Chrysocolla got its name because its properties were first used to solder gold.  Chrysocolla has been known to man since the beginning of recorded history, its name is actually two words from Greek, “Chrysa” meaning Gold and “Kolla” which means glue.  Chrysocolla has a beautiful blue green color, and many people mistake it for turquoise. Because this mineral is very soft, it is not used for ornamental jewelry, but can be used as cabochons when properly polished.

Sources: Chrysocolla is found worldwide, though significant sources include the Congo (Zaire), Israel, Australia, Peru, Chile, Mexico, and in the U.S. in Arizona.

Chrysocolla as a Powerstone: Chrysocolla calms, cleanses and re-energises all the chakras.  It draws out guilt, heals heartache and increases the capacity to love.  Improves communication and opens psychic vision.  Encourages self-awareness and inner balance.  Imparts confidence and sensitivity.  Chrysocolla enhances personal power and inspires creativity.  Overcomes phobias by drawing out negativity and supplying motivation.  Reduces mental tension.  Promotes truth-telling and impartiality.  Alleviates guilt and brings in joy.

Chrysocolla treats arthritis, bone disease, osteoporosis, muscle spasms, blood disorders and lung problems.  It detoxifies the liver, kidneys and intestines.  Re-oxygenates the blood, regenerates the pancreas and regulates insulin.  Strengthens muscles and alleviates muscle cramps.  Chrysocolla heals infections, lowers blood pressure and soothes burns.

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Chrysoprase

Mohs Hardness Scale: 7

Chrysoprase is the green variety of Chalcedony. Its color ranges from a light, minty-green to a deep apple-green. The unique, rich color of Chrysoprase is caused by impurities of nickel, as this gemstone most frequently originates in nickel-rich Serpentine deposits.   Most green stones owe their color to chromium or vanadium, but chrysoprase derives its color from the nickel content.  Chrysoprase was used by the Greeks, Romans, and the Egyptians in jewelry and other ornamental objects and because of its semi-opaque green color, it is often mistaken for Imperial jadeite.  One of the most valuable chalcedony gem stones, chrysoprase is prized for its color and rarity,

Sources: Australia, Tanzania, Madagascar, India, Kazakhstan, and the United States (Arizona and California). Poland was an ancient source of Chrysoprase, as well as the only source of this material for hundreds of years, until the newer deposits were discovered in modern times.

Chrysoprase as a Powerstone: Chrysoprase helps to make conscious what was unconscious. It strengthens the workings of insight and the higher consciousness.  Chrysoprase is powerful stone. It is said to bring good fortune and prosperity, as well as business success. It facilitates self-expression, courage, hope, and the ability to use them wisely. It can bring happiness, which is partly because it helps its wearer get rid of negative thoughts and irritability. It also enhances and strengthens friendships. Chrysoprase is a stone of balance that equalize yin/yang energies and allows deep meditation. It can mend broken hearts and remove inferiority or superiority complexes. t is a powerful healing stone that is said to aid failing eyesight or other eye problems, immune system response, fertility issues, gout, mental illness, relieves fevers and excess body heat, and can help guard against sexually transmitted diseases. Note that healing crystal meanings are spiritual supports to healing and are not prescriptions or healthcare information. 

 

 
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Crystal Quartz

Mohs Hardness Scale: 7

 

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Coral as a Powerstone: 

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Dumortierite

Mohs Hardness Scale: 7

Dumortierite often forms in an attractive blue color and can be used as an ornamental stone. Though it is most commonly perceived as blue, especially in lapidary use, other colors include purple, pink, gray and brown. Dumortierite specimens are composed of dense fibers, giving them a tough durability.

Dumortierite often forms as inclusions in Quartz, and this combination results in a natural blue Quartz gemstone. These are known in the gemstone market as "Dumortierite Quartz" and they are becoming increasingly popular as a minor blue gemstone. Dumortierite is named after French paleontologist Eugene Dumortier (1803-1873).

Sources: France, Madagascar, Canada, Poland, Peru, Brazil, US

Dumortierite as a Powerstone: This dark blue stone, has a strong ability to aid intellectual activity within the brain, and will assist you to develop enhanced mental abilities. Dumortierite is a highly useful aid for anyone who is studying as it assists the retention of information. Dumortierite is also excellent for enhancing your will power, and capacity for self mastery.  It is a stone that gives you the ability to stand up for yourself by making you more self aware which in turn increases your self love.    It will help you to take control of your own life and increase your level of patience.

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Emerald

Moh's Hardness Scale: 7.5-8

Emerald, the green variety of Beryl, is the most famous and valuable green gemstone. Its beautiful green color, combined with durability and rarity, make it one of the most expensive gemstones. Emeralds are fascinating gemstones. They have the most beautiful, most intense and most radiant green that can possibly be imagined: emerald green. Deep green is the most desired color in Emeralds. In general the paler the color of an Emerald, the lesser its value.  In top quality, fine emeralds are even more valuable than diamonds.

The name emerald comes from the Greek 'smaragdos' via the Old French 'esmeralde', and really just means 'green gemstone'. Innumerable fantastic stories have grown up around this magnificent gem.  Ancient Roman's believed emeralds to be the stone of the goddess Venus and represented love and beauty.

Sources: The finest Emeralds are traditionally from Colombia, but other sources include brazil, China, Afghanistan, Russia, and the US.

Emerald as a Powerstone: Although Emerald is a stone of prosperity and riches, it is not just a materialistic stone. It also encourages spiritual growth, clear vision, memory, faith, intelligence and communication, inspiration, joy, intuition, clairvoyance, sensuality, love, romance, beauty, harmony, tranquility, serenity, clarity, cleansing, justice, friendship and unity. It seems that more kinds of physical healing have been ascribed to the emerald than to almost any other stone.

A stone of wisdom, love, and great harmony, an Emerald shall be a bridge between two people when the gem is given in love.   It is said to benefit one’s intuition, promoting communication though truthfulness.

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Flourite

Moh's Hardness Scale: 4

Fluorite is a very popular mineral, and it naturally occurs in all colors of the spectrum. It is one of the most varied colored minerals in the mineral kingdom, and the colors may be very intense and almost electric.Fluorite makes a beautiful gemstone that comes in all colors, and can often be multicolored with two or more contrasting color within the same gemstone. Multicolored Fluorite gemstones often show banding patterns.  Fluorite is one of the more famous fluorescent minerals. Many specimens strongly fluoresce, in a great variation of color. In fact, the word "fluorescent" is derived from the mineral Fluorite. The name of the element fluorine is also derived from Fluorite, as Fluorite is by far the most common and well-known fluorine mineral.

Sources: Canada, China, England, France, India, Mexico, Morocco, Namibia, Russia, South Africa Spain, Switzerland and the United States

Flourite as Powerstone: Fluorite may can be used as a stone for meditation to assist in energizing the body and raising one’s powers of concentration.It absorbs and neutralises negative energy and stress. It encourages positivity, balances the energies, and improves balance and coordination, both physically and mentally. 

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Garnet

Mohs Hardness Scale: 6.5-7

Garnet, the January birthstone, derived its name from the Latin word granatus, meaning like a grain, which refers to the mode of occurrence wherein crystals resemble grains or seeds embedded in the matrix. Garnet is a family of minerals having similar physical and crystalline properties. They all have the same general chemical formula.  Garnet species are found in many colors including red, orange, yellow, green, purple, brown, blue, black, pink and colorless. The rarest of these is the blue garnet, discovered in the late 1990s in Bekily, Madagascar. It is also found in parts of the United States, Russia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Turkey. It changes color from blue-green in the daylight to purple in incandescent light, as a result it is commonly referred to as "color change garnet".    Although the use of garnet as a gemstone for jewelry is widely known, garnet is more often used for industrial puposes.  Mixed with very high pressure water, garnet is used to cut steel and other materials in water jets.  Garnet sand is also used in the water filtration process.

Sources: South Africa, Brazil, Australia, the United States, Mexico and Myanmar.

Garnet as a Powerstone: Garnets have been widely known for thousands of years, and it has long been known as the warriors stone, as soldiers from the world over wore or carried this gem as a talisman against death and injury.  But it was also said to bring victory, peace and tranquility.  Garnet will help to alleviate depression and is used for gentle spiritual healing. It is also commonly considered a good stone for successful business ventures. It will assist in building one’s self-confidence, especially if one’s chosen field in in the creative sphere. Garnet will bring positive thoughts as well as boosting energy. It will help overcome writer’s block and general lack of inspiration in any field.

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Hematite

Moh's Hardness Scale: 5.5-6

Hematite is one of the most abundant minerals on Earth's surface and in the shallow crust. It is an iron oxide with a chemical composition of Fe2O3. It is a common rock-forming mineral found in sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous rocks at locations throughout the world.  Hematite is a mineral, colored black to steel or silver-gray, brown to reddish brown, or red. It is mined as the main ore of iron.  Quite a strange stone indeed, Hematite is sold as a heavy, silvery metallic black luster and bulbous shape, with an inner core stained the color of blood.  The name hematite is derived from the Greek word for blood "haima" because hematite can be red, as in rouge, a powdered form of hematite.  Hematite generally occurs as massive opaque material with a metallic luster, showing an incredible blood red color when cut or ground.  The color of hematite lends itself to use as a pigment. 

Sources: China, Australia, Brazil, India, Russia, Ukraine, South Africa, Canada, Venezuela, and the United States.

Hematite as a Powerstone: Related to the blood, Hematite is used to assist in ailments related to blood circulation, as well as the treatment of diseases such as anemia or embolisms.  Told to assist one’s body in the absorption of iron into the small intestine, this in turn improves the oxygen supply to one’s body, increasing blood flow.

Besides Hematites association with blood and healing, it is also known as a ‘stone for the mind’, or a ‘stone of the higher mind’, as it brings one incredible grounding and calm helping one to focus and organize the mind. Assisting in original thought, logical thinking as well as mathematics, it acts well as a firm stabilizing force.

   
 

Howlite

Mohs Hardness Scale: 3.5

Howlite, which is named for its discoverer Henry How (a Nova Scotia geologist), is one of those minerals that is more famous for imitating another mineral. In this case the other mineral is turquoise, a phosphate gemstone. Although howlite is always white or gray, because of its porous nature it can accept dyes fairly easily and be dyed a turquoise blue. Howlite is also sold in its natural state, sometimes under the misleading trade names of "white turquoise" or "white buffalo turquoise," or the derived name "white buffalo stone."

Source: The United States, specifically California, is the source for almost all of the Howlite mineral.

Howlite as a Powerstone: Howlite is best known for it’s strong associations with self-awareness, creativity, and improving one’s emotional well being and attitudes. It enhances character building, a sense of decency, and encourages the development of desirable personal aspect.  In general, Howlite aids in dispelling anger, resentfulness, selfishness, and allows one to look inside the for answers. It also aids in communicating the negative emotions with a clearer emotional expression, which will always result in calmer ‘confrontations’.

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Iolite

Moh's Hardness Scale: 7-7.5

Iolite is a lovely violet/blue color and is also referred to as Cordierite, Dichroite, and Indialite.  Cordierite is named after Louis Cordier (1777-1861), a French geologist and mineralogist who was a founder of the French Geological Society.  It is dichroic, meaning that it appears full of color in one direction and completely colorless in another.  The name Iolite is initially derived from the Greek ios, which means violet. Iolite is usually a purplish blue when cut properly, with a softness to the color that can be quite soothing as well as attractive.

Iolite is also called the Viking Stone. It was said that it was used in thin sheets by the ancient Vikings as a "lens" to see during their ocean voyages, as the one of the world's first polarising filter, and is often known as the Viking stone. 

Sources: India, Sri Lanka, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, and Brazil. The Vikings likely mined Iolite from deposits in Norway and/or Greenland.

Iolite as a Powerstone: Iolite is said to be quite helpful when dealing with addictions of all kinds including alcoholism, assisting in the detoxification as well as maintaining sobriety.  Conversely it is also said to grant the ability to consume alcohol without exhibiting the effects.  Iolite is a vision stone.  It clears thought forms, opening intuition.  Aids in understanding and releasing the causes of addiction.  Helps you to express your true self, free from the expectations of others.  Iolite releases discord within relationships.  It encourages taking responsibility for yourself, overcoming codependency within your partnership.

 
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Ammonite

Mohs Hardness scale: 4.5-5

Ammonites were free-swimming molluscs of the ancient oceans, living around the same time that the dinosaurs walked the Earth and disappearing during the same extinction event. They came in a range of sizes, from tiny species only a couple of centimetres across, to large ones reaching over two metres in diameter. The animal would have lived in the last and largest of a chain of spiralled chambers. Ammonite generally refers to the fossilized shell of these ctreatures, these shells are made up of aragonite. While aragonite is the main component of ammonite, other minerals can be found in it as well. Mainly pyrite, calcite and silica, though other trace elements are quite common.

Sources: Ammonite fossils are found on every continent.

Ammonite as Power Stone: Ammonites are a stone of protection.  It provides for insight and it helps to assist one in seeing the ‘whole picture.’ It gives stability to it's user.   In healing, ammonite will assist with general good health, stamina and high energy. It can help transmute negativity to smoothly flowing energy.  Ammonite encourages growth and change.  Ammonites encourage us to leave the past behind and continue to progress towards new phases of our life.

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Angelite

Mohs Hardness scale: 3.5

Angelite or Blue Anhydrite is a fairly new discovery in the gem and mineral world.  Angelite was discovered in 1987 in Peru, during the Harmonic Conversion, it's colors may be white, gray or colorless, as well as blue to violet. Angelite is formed from celestite that has been compressed for many millions of years.  Fine specimens of Anhydrite have been found in Mexico and Peru that show good crystal habit, a nice blue color and even a play of light internally in the crystal.  Lilac blue Anhydrite is commonly referred to as Angelite, for it's "Angelic" color.  Rare specimens of Angelite become flourescent under UV light also addly to its heavenly beauty.

Sources: Mexico, Peru, Germany and New Mexico

Angelite as Power Stone: Angelite is a beautiful and calming stone, connecting you to the Angels, Spiritual Guides and the spiritual realm.  You will also be able to easily connect with your higher self in this way.  Angelite brings inner peace, tranquility, calm and focus to the highest realms of heavenly light.  It is one stone that truly holds the energy of the force we know as Karuna: compassion, pity and tenderness.  It also implies devoted action to alleviate suffering.  Angelite can helps to rejuvenate and regenerate ill and depleted areas. It is very useful in any wasting type sickness.

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Apatite

Mohs Hardness Scale: 5

Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals.  Oddly enough, the primary use of apatite is in the manufacturing of fertilizer – it is a source of phosphorus.  Apatite is the most common phosphate mineral, and is the main source of the phosphorus required by plants. The bones and teeth of most animals, including humans, are composed of calcium phosphate, which is the same material as Apatite.  While tooth enamel is the hardest material in the human body, apatite is not especially hard when compared to other gemstones, with a rating of only 5 on the Mohs scale. So apatite jewelry is usually confined to earrings and pendants or occasional-wear rings with protective settings. Apatite is also sensitive to heat and acid, so should not be worn when working with chemicals.  While apatite is a common mineral, gem-quality apatite is quite rare. Apatite is known by gemstone connoisseurs especially for two colors; the Paraiba-like blue-green, and the leek-green color that once earned apatite the name 'asparagus stone.' There is also a very rare deep purple apatite, found in the aptly named Mount Apatite in Maine, USA.

Sources: United States, Brazil, Burma and Madagascar.

Apatite as a Powerstone: Apatite is said to enhance communication and self-expression and can be a useful stone to keep near you during public speaking. It can further help, public speaking, by calming the nerves and giving you the self-confidence to stand up there and talk. In healing Apatite is believed to suppress the appetite and to raise the metabolic rate so may be useful for those wishing to lose weight.  



 
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Aquamarine

Mohs Hardness Scale: 7.5-8

Aquamarine (from Latin: aqua marina, "water of the sea") is a blue or cyan variety of beryl.  Aquamarine is a member of the beryl family and ranges in color from an almost colorless pale blue to blue-green or teal. The most prized color is a deep-blue aqua color.  Aquamarine is one of the official birthstones for those born in March. Aquamarine is exceptionally hard and has an outstanding vitreous (glass-like) luster. Like seawater, aquamarine can be light-blue, dark-blue, blue-green and green-blue. The more saturated the color, the higher the value, although almost all aquamarine is typically a lighter blue tone. A deeply saturated blue is the most desirable color, but it is very rare in larger specimens. The intensity of color is one of the most important criteria when evaluating colored gemstones, but unlike other gems, aquamarine is not diminished by lesser color intensity; many people actually prefer the more crystal-clear lighter gemstones over the richer, deeper colors.

Sources: Australia, Myanmar (Burma), China, India, Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Zambia and Zimbabwe, as well as in several U.S. locations.

Aquamarine as a Powerstone: Aquamarine's light blue arouses feelings of sympathy, trust, harmony and friendship. Good feelings. Feelings which are based on mutuality and which prove their worth in lasting relationships. The blue of aquamarine is a divine, eternal colour, because it is the colour of the sky. However, aquamarine blue is also the colour of water with its life-giving force. And aquamarine really does seem to have captured the lucid blue of the oceans. No wonder, when you consider that according to the myths that it originated in the treasure chest of fabulous mermaids, and has, since ancient times, been regarded as the sailors' lucky stone. Its name is derived from the Latin 'aqua' (water) and 'mare' (sea). It is said that its strengths are developed to their best advantage when it is placed in water which is bathed in sunlight. However, it is surely better still to wear aquamarine, since according to the old traditions this promises a happy marriage and is said to bring the woman who wears it joy and wealth into the bargain. Aquamarine is also a stone of love and fidelity.  It is believed to reawaken love and passion in long and tired relationships.An ideal gem, not only for loving and married couples.

 

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Aventurine

Mohs Hardness Scale: 6.5

Aventurine is a form of quartz, characterised by its translucency and the presence of platy mineral inclusions that give a shimmering or glistening effect termed aventurescence.Aventurine is a translucent to opaque variety of microcrystalline quartz. It contains small inclusions of shiny minerals which give the stone a sparkling effect known as aventurescence. Inclusions of mica will give a silverish sheen, while inclusions of hematite give a reddish or grayish sparkle.  Aventurine ranges in color from green, peach, brown, blue and a creamy green. Besides its uses in jewelry, aventurine is also used for ornamental purposes like vases, bowls, and figurines.

Sources: Brazil, India, Austria, Russia, and Tanzania.

Aventurine as a PowerStone: Aventurine is known as the “Stone of Opportunity,” thought to be the luckiest of all crystals, especially in manifesting prosperity and wealth, or for increasing favor in competitions or games of chance. Its winning energy makes it a great ally for boosting one’s chances in any situation - a first date, tax audit, even landing a promotion. One needs only to be near it to derive its benefits. Aventurine is ideal for soothing hot tempers or bad moods, and can greatly diminish the effects of domestic strife between spouses. Many believe that aventurine has the capacity to calm a troubled spirit and bring about inner peace.

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Azurite

Mohs Hardness scale:3.5 - 4

Azurite is a soft, deep blue copper mineral produced by weathering of copper ore deposits.  Azurite is one of the two basic copper(II) carbonate minerals, the other being bright green malachite.   Azurite owes its name to its beautiful azure-blue color, which makes it a very popular and well-known mineral. It usually occurs with green Malachite, which may form green stains or specks on Azurite crystals.   Azurite was used as a blue pigment for centuries.  Depending on the degree of fineness to which it was ground, it gave a wide range of blues.

Sources: Australia, Chile, Russia, Africa, China.

Azurite as a Powerstone: Azurite tempers the mind; it releases stress and confusion, and alleviates worry, indecision, and thoughts that linger in the back of the consciousness.   Azurite enhances focus and concentration, memorization and retention of information. Azurite was sacred to the Egyptians who believed it was an aid to spiritual communication. Many believe that this stone helps to reduce anger and to increase psychic awareness.

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Agate

Mohs Hardness Scale: 7-9

Agate is a variety of chalcedony formed from layers of quartz which usually show varicolored bands. It usually occurs as rounded nodules or veins.  Although agates may be found in various kinds of rock, they are classically associated with volcanic rocks.  Often tiny quartz crystals form within the stone and add to the beauty and uniqueness of individual stones. These crystals are called  druzy. Lapidaries often cut just the drusy from an agate and jewelers use these drusy cabochons as the main stone or as an accent stone in their jewelry designs.  Agate is a relatively inexpensive stone except for some varieties with unusual banded or scenic markings.

Sources: Africa, Asia, Brazil, Egypt, Germany, India, Italy, Mexico, Nepal, and the USA.

Agate as a Pwerstone: Agate is believed to discern truth, accept circumstances, and is a powerful emotional healer. Legend says that Agate improves memory and concentration, increases stamina and encourages honesty.  It is believed to prevent insomnia and insure pleasant dreams, to enhance personal courage and protect one against danger. Agate provides a calming influence, improves perception, concentration and helps to develop and increase one's analytical talents.

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Botswanna Agate

Mohs Hardness scale: 7

Agate from the African country of Botswana banded with fine parallel lines of white, purple, or peach.  Botswana Agates tend to be considered a favorite of the general rock collectors because of their sharp constrasting white, gray and black bands as well as their shadowing effects. White, black and gray are typcial colors, and some agates have been found with colors of lavendar, purple, orange,  red and yellow with latter colors being most rare. There are some pink to white agates found in  the same area as result of weathering ("bleaching"). It is common to see them in small sizes (an once to half-pound), but some larger do show up from time to time but they tend to be more fractured.

Sources: Botswana, Africa

Botswana Agate as a Powerstone: Botswana agate is sometimes called the "change stone" because of its property of helping one handle change in a positive way. It gently helps one make transitions of any kind in a way that change is not as difficult or painful as could be without it; it is a comforting stone. Botswana agate is helpful in overcoming addictions and other self-destructive compulsive behavior patterns, as well as dealing with repressed emotional issues. As a success stone, it helps one achieve and cope with success. It is also a stone of sensuality. It is beneficial to the nervous system and can help rid the body of toxins, as well as help in the healing of broken bones.

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Calcite

Mohs Hardness Scale: 3

Calcite is a rock-forming mineral with a chemical formula of CaCO3. It is extremely common and found throughout the world in sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous rocks. Some geologists consider it to be a "ubiquitous mineral" - one that is found everywhere.  It occurs in a seemingly unlimited variety of shapes and colors. It constitutes a major portion of many of the earth's rocks. Some interesting facts about calcite are high-grade optical calcite was used in World War II for gun sights, specifically in bomb sights and anti-aircraft weaponry. Also, experiments have been conducted to use calcite for a cloak of invisibility

Sources: Calcite is available on every continent.

Calcite as a Powerstone: Calcite will help to balance the emotions, remove fear, overcome depression, as well as simply dissolving problems standing in your way of achieving your highest potential. It is particularly helpful in removing phobias, as it will help to restore mental and emotional equilibrium.   It also has the ability to bring stability to one’s will, and increases inner strength.  Calcite is a very soothing and calming stone, as it will help calm overactive emotions and thoughts, as well it can also help immensely with the grieving process.

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Coral

Mohs Hardness Scale: 

 

Sources:

Coral as a Powerstone: 

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Carnelian

Mohs Hardness scale: 6-7

Carnelian is a brownish-red mineral which is commonly used as a semi-precious gemstone.  Sard, Onyx, as well as Sardonyx are are all varieties of  Chalcedony Quartz. Carnelian is a red form of Chalcedony.  Stones may be uniformly colored or faintly banded. It is told that the best carnelian specimens are from India, where it is placed in the sun to assist a slight change from brown shades to tints of red and orange.  Carnelian is one of the oldest known gemstones. It was widely used in ancient Rome to make insignia and seals for imprinting on letters or important documents because hot wax does not stick to carnelian. Carnelian is one of the twelve gemstones mentioned in the Bible as appearing on the Breastplate of Aaron. It also is one of the birthstones listed in the ancient Arabic, Hebrew and Roman tables.

Sources: Brazil, Uruguay, India and Madagascar.

Carneian as a Powerstone: Ancient Egyptians carried it on and about their bodies as a source of constant renewal and vitality. It was also told that in the Egyptian Book of the Dead that Carnelian was placed in tombs as “magic armor” for life after death.   The ancients often believed that Carnelian was good for combating a bad temper, such as anger that was thought to be the product of black magic. And Carnelian is known to offer protection from black magic. Many other ancient healers used Carnelian as a ailment for blood issues, as it was known as the “Blood of Isis”.  It is said that this stone will help cleanse and purify the blood, thus giving more physical energy. 

Carnelian was worn on the hand in ancient Egypt to still anger, as well as jealousy, envy, and hatred. It is still used to promote peace and harmony and to dispel depression as well.  It is used to counteract doubt ad negative thoughts, and can also be used in spells relating to these problems. It may confer patience. Also said to protect from ill wishers, driving away evil.

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Chalcedony

Mohs Hardness Scale: 6.5 - 7

The term chalcedony is derived from the name of the ancient Greek town Chalkedon in Asia Minor.

Chalcedony, which is found worldwide, is the name for a group of stones made of a microcrystalline or cryptocrystalline variety of quartz, which means the quartz crystals are too small to be seen without high magnification.  In jewelry usage, the name Chalcedony is usually applied only to the light blue translucent and waxy form. Other stones in this group are know as agate, jasper, petrified wood, bloodstone, petrified dinosaur bone, fire agate, tiger's eye, chrysocolla, chrysoprase, onyx, sardonyx, and carnelian.  Chalcedony is found in almost every color including: white, gray, black, brown, brownish red, orange, yellow, light to dark green, blue, lavender or, in the case of agates and jaspers, combinations of those colors.

Sources: United States, Austria, Czech Republic, Iceland, Mexico, Britain, New Zealand, Turkey, Russia, Brazil.

Chalcedony as a PowerStone: Chalcedony is mainly known and most popular in it’s blue hue.  It’s a stone with wonderfully gentle almost dreamy energy. Said to foster balance between mind, body and spirit, it is a stone of peace and calm. Told to reduce and often negate feelings of anger, irritation and hostility, Chalcedony absorbs the negative energy then dissipates it to prevent forward movement of the negativity.  Blue Chalcedony soothes and fosters mental and emotional stability and can engender emotional honesty.

 

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Chrysocolla

Mohs Hardness Scale: 2.5

Chrysocolla is a sharply colored mineral. Its color can be among the brightest shade of blue and green, and is caused by its copper content. Chrysocolla is often coated by a drusy layer of glossy clear Quartz, or intergrown together with the Quartz.   It should be noted that Chrysocolla got its name because its properties were first used to solder gold.  Chrysocolla has been known to man since the beginning of recorded history, its name is actually two words from Greek, “Chrysa” meaning Gold and “Kolla” which means glue.  Chrysocolla has a beautiful blue green color, and many people mistake it for turquoise. Because this mineral is very soft, it is not used for ornamental jewelry, but can be used as cabochons when properly polished.

Sources: Chrysocolla is found worldwide, though significant sources include the Congo (Zaire), Israel, Australia, Peru, Chile, Mexico, and in the U.S. in Arizona.

Chrysocolla as a Powerstone: Chrysocolla calms, cleanses and re-energises all the chakras.  It draws out guilt, heals heartache and increases the capacity to love.  Improves communication and opens psychic vision.  Encourages self-awareness and inner balance.  Imparts confidence and sensitivity.  Chrysocolla enhances personal power and inspires creativity.  Overcomes phobias by drawing out negativity and supplying motivation.  Reduces mental tension.  Promotes truth-telling and impartiality.  Alleviates guilt and brings in joy.

Chrysocolla treats arthritis, bone disease, osteoporosis, muscle spasms, blood disorders and lung problems.  It detoxifies the liver, kidneys and intestines.  Re-oxygenates the blood, regenerates the pancreas and regulates insulin.  Strengthens muscles and alleviates muscle cramps.  Chrysocolla heals infections, lowers blood pressure and soothes burns.

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Chrysoprase

Mohs Hardness Scale: 7

Chrysoprase is the green variety of Chalcedony. Its color ranges from a light, minty-green to a deep apple-green. The unique, rich color of Chrysoprase is caused by impurities of nickel, as this gemstone most frequently originates in nickel-rich Serpentine deposits.   Most green stones owe their color to chromium or vanadium, but chrysoprase derives its color from the nickel content.  Chrysoprase was used by the Greeks, Romans, and the Egyptians in jewelry and other ornamental objects and because of its semi-opaque green color, it is often mistaken for Imperial jadeite.  One of the most valuable chalcedony gem stones, chrysoprase is prized for its color and rarity,

Sources: Australia, Tanzania, Madagascar, India, Kazakhstan, and the United States (Arizona and California). Poland was an ancient source of Chrysoprase, as well as the only source of this material for hundreds of years, until the newer deposits were discovered in modern times.

Chrysoprase as a Powerstone: Chrysoprase helps to make conscious what was unconscious. It strengthens the workings of insight and the higher consciousness.  Chrysoprase is powerful stone. It is said to bring good fortune and prosperity, as well as business success. It facilitates self-expression, courage, hope, and the ability to use them wisely. It can bring happiness, which is partly because it helps its wearer get rid of negative thoughts and irritability. It also enhances and strengthens friendships. Chrysoprase is a stone of balance that equalize yin/yang energies and allows deep meditation. It can mend broken hearts and remove inferiority or superiority complexes. t is a powerful healing stone that is said to aid failing eyesight or other eye problems, immune system response, fertility issues, gout, mental illness, relieves fevers and excess body heat, and can help guard against sexually transmitted diseases. Note that healing crystal meanings are spiritual supports to healing and are not prescriptions or healthcare information. 

 

 
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Crystal Quartz

Mohs Hardness Scale: 7

 

Sources:

 

Coral as a Powerstone: 

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Dumortierite

Mohs Hardness Scale: 7

Dumortierite often forms in an attractive blue color and can be used as an ornamental stone. Though it is most commonly perceived as blue, especially in lapidary use, other colors include purple, pink, gray and brown. Dumortierite specimens are composed of dense fibers, giving them a tough durability.

Dumortierite often forms as inclusions in Quartz, and this combination results in a natural blue Quartz gemstone. These are known in the gemstone market as "Dumortierite Quartz" and they are becoming increasingly popular as a minor blue gemstone. Dumortierite is named after French paleontologist Eugene Dumortier (1803-1873).

Sources: France, Madagascar, Canada, Poland, Peru, Brazil, US

Dumortierite as a Powerstone: This dark blue stone, has a strong ability to aid intellectual activity within the brain, and will assist you to develop enhanced mental abilities. Dumortierite is a highly useful aid for anyone who is studying as it assists the retention of information. Dumortierite is also excellent for enhancing your will power, and capacity for self mastery.  It is a stone that gives you the ability to stand up for yourself by making you more self aware which in turn increases your self love.    It will help you to take control of your own life and increase your level of patience.

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Emerald

Moh's Hardness Scale: 7.5-8

Emerald, the green variety of Beryl, is the most famous and valuable green gemstone. Its beautiful green color, combined with durability and rarity, make it one of the most expensive gemstones. Emeralds are fascinating gemstones. They have the most beautiful, most intense and most radiant green that can possibly be imagined: emerald green. Deep green is the most desired color in Emeralds. In general the paler the color of an Emerald, the lesser its value.  In top quality, fine emeralds are even more valuable than diamonds.

The name emerald comes from the Greek 'smaragdos' via the Old French 'esmeralde', and really just means 'green gemstone'. Innumerable fantastic stories have grown up around this magnificent gem.  Ancient Roman's believed emeralds to be the stone of the goddess Venus and represented love and beauty.

Sources: The finest Emeralds are traditionally from Colombia, but other sources include brazil, China, Afghanistan, Russia, and the US.

Emerald as a Powerstone: Although Emerald is a stone of prosperity and riches, it is not just a materialistic stone. It also encourages spiritual growth, clear vision, memory, faith, intelligence and communication, inspiration, joy, intuition, clairvoyance, sensuality, love, romance, beauty, harmony, tranquility, serenity, clarity, cleansing, justice, friendship and unity. It seems that more kinds of physical healing have been ascribed to the emerald than to almost any other stone.

A stone of wisdom, love, and great harmony, an Emerald shall be a bridge between two people when the gem is given in love.   It is said to benefit one’s intuition, promoting communication though truthfulness.

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Flourite

Moh's Hardness Scale: 4

Fluorite is a very popular mineral, and it naturally occurs in all colors of the spectrum. It is one of the most varied colored minerals in the mineral kingdom, and the colors may be very intense and almost electric.Fluorite makes a beautiful gemstone that comes in all colors, and can often be multicolored with two or more contrasting color within the same gemstone. Multicolored Fluorite gemstones often show banding patterns.  Fluorite is one of the more famous fluorescent minerals. Many specimens strongly fluoresce, in a great variation of color. In fact, the word "fluorescent" is derived from the mineral Fluorite. The name of the element fluorine is also derived from Fluorite, as Fluorite is by far the most common and well-known fluorine mineral.

Sources: Canada, China, England, France, India, Mexico, Morocco, Namibia, Russia, South Africa Spain, Switzerland and the United States

Flourite as Powerstone: Fluorite may can be used as a stone for meditation to assist in energizing the body and raising one’s powers of concentration.It absorbs and neutralises negative energy and stress. It encourages positivity, balances the energies, and improves balance and coordination, both physically and mentally. 

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Garnet

Mohs Hardness Scale: 6.5-7

Garnet, the January birthstone, derived its name from the Latin word granatus, meaning like a grain, which refers to the mode of occurrence wherein crystals resemble grains or seeds embedded in the matrix. Garnet is a family of minerals having similar physical and crystalline properties. They all have the same general chemical formula.  Garnet species are found in many colors including red, orange, yellow, green, purple, brown, blue, black, pink and colorless. The rarest of these is the blue garnet, discovered in the late 1990s in Bekily, Madagascar. It is also found in parts of the United States, Russia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Turkey. It changes color from blue-green in the daylight to purple in incandescent light, as a result it is commonly referred to as "color change garnet".    Although the use of garnet as a gemstone for jewelry is widely known, garnet is more often used for industrial puposes.  Mixed with very high pressure water, garnet is used to cut steel and other materials in water jets.  Garnet sand is also used in the water filtration process.

Sources: South Africa, Brazil, Australia, the United States, Mexico and Myanmar.

Garnet as a Powerstone: Garnets have been widely known for thousands of years, and it has long been known as the warriors stone, as soldiers from the world over wore or carried this gem as a talisman against death and injury.  But it was also said to bring victory, peace and tranquility.  Garnet will help to alleviate depression and is used for gentle spiritual healing. It is also commonly considered a good stone for successful business ventures. It will assist in building one’s self-confidence, especially if one’s chosen field in in the creative sphere. Garnet will bring positive thoughts as well as boosting energy. It will help overcome writer’s block and general lack of inspiration in any field.

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Hematite

Moh's Hardness Scale: 5.5-6

Hematite is one of the most abundant minerals on Earth's surface and in the shallow crust. It is an iron oxide with a chemical composition of Fe2O3. It is a common rock-forming mineral found in sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous rocks at locations throughout the world.  Hematite is a mineral, colored black to steel or silver-gray, brown to reddish brown, or red. It is mined as the main ore of iron.  Quite a strange stone indeed, Hematite is sold as a heavy, silvery metallic black luster and bulbous shape, with an inner core stained the color of blood.  The name hematite is derived from the Greek word for blood "haima" because hematite can be red, as in rouge, a powdered form of hematite.  Hematite generally occurs as massive opaque material with a metallic luster, showing an incredible blood red color when cut or ground.  The color of hematite lends itself to use as a pigment. 

Sources: China, Australia, Brazil, India, Russia, Ukraine, South Africa, Canada, Venezuela, and the United States.

Hematite as a Powerstone: Related to the blood, Hematite is used to assist in ailments related to blood circulation, as well as the treatment of diseases such as anemia or embolisms.  Told to assist one’s body in the absorption of iron into the small intestine, this in turn improves the oxygen supply to one’s body, increasing blood flow.

Besides Hematites association with blood and healing, it is also known as a ‘stone for the mind’, or a ‘stone of the higher mind’, as it brings one incredible grounding and calm helping one to focus and organize the mind. Assisting in original thought, logical thinking as well as mathematics, it acts well as a firm stabilizing force.

   
 

Howlite

Mohs Hardness Scale: 3.5

Howlite, which is named for its discoverer Henry How (a Nova Scotia geologist), is one of those minerals that is more famous for imitating another mineral. In this case the other mineral is turquoise, a phosphate gemstone. Although howlite is always white or gray, because of its porous nature it can accept dyes fairly easily and be dyed a turquoise blue. Howlite is also sold in its natural state, sometimes under the misleading trade names of "white turquoise" or "white buffalo turquoise," or the derived name "white buffalo stone."

Source: The United States, specifically California, is the source for almost all of the Howlite mineral.

Howlite as a Powerstone: Howlite is best known for it’s strong associations with self-awareness, creativity, and improving one’s emotional well being and attitudes. It enhances character building, a sense of decency, and encourages the development of desirable personal aspect.  In general, Howlite aids in dispelling anger, resentfulness, selfishness, and allows one to look inside the for answers. It also aids in communicating the negative emotions with a clearer emotional expression, which will always result in calmer ‘confrontations’.

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Iolite

Moh's Hardness Scale: 7-7.5

Iolite is a lovely violet/blue color and is also referred to as Cordierite, Dichroite, and Indialite.  Cordierite is named after Louis Cordier (1777-1861), a French geologist and mineralogist who was a founder of the French Geological Society.  It is dichroic, meaning that it appears full of color in one direction and completely colorless in another.  The name Iolite is initially derived from the Greek ios, which means violet. Iolite is usually a purplish blue when cut properly, with a softness to the color that can be quite soothing as well as attractive.

Iolite is also called the Viking Stone. It was said that it was used in thin sheets by the ancient Vikings as a "lens" to see during their ocean voyages, as the one of the world's first polarising filter, and is often known as the Viking stone. 

Sources: India, Sri Lanka, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, and Brazil. The Vikings likely mined Iolite from deposits in Norway and/or Greenland.

Iolite as a Powerstone: Iolite is said to be quite helpful when dealing with addictions of all kinds including alcoholism, assisting in the detoxification as well as maintaining sobriety.  Conversely it is also said to grant the ability to consume alcohol without exhibiting the effects.  Iolite is a vision stone.  It clears thought forms, opening intuition.  Aids in understanding and releasing the causes of addiction.  Helps you to express your true self, free from the expectations of others.  Iolite releases discord within relationships.  It encourages taking responsibility for yourself, overcoming codependency within your partnership.